Anen (fl. 14th century b. c.e.) Priestly official of the Eighteenth Dynasty
He served in the reign of amenhotep iii (r. 1391-1353 b. c.e.). Anen was the high priest of the temple of HELIOPOLIS, now a suburb of modern Cairo, and the brother of Queen tiye (1). yuya and tuya were his parents. A statue of him in his priestly attire is in the Turin Museum.
Anfushi A necropolis on the Island of Pharos in ALEXANDRIA, Egypt, the burials there date to the Ptolemaic
Period (304-30 b. c.e.) and later eras. A catacomb area is also part of this burial site.
Anhai Papyrus This is one of the most elaborately illustrated papyri of the book of the dead, the ancient Egyptian mortuary texts that evolved over the centuries. Discovered in thebes, the work depicts the rites of burial and the judgments of the dead. The Anhai Papyrus measures 14 feet, six inches and is now in the British Museum, London.
See also tomb texts.
Anhur A god of ancient Egypt, called onouris by the Greeks, his name meant “the Sky-Bearer,” and he was worshiped in conjunction with the god SHU, another solar deity. The lion goddess Mehit was the consort of Anhur. Anhur was believed to be the warrior aspect of Re, but he also represented the creative aspects of humans. He was portrayed as a muscular man with an embroidered robe and a headdress of four plumes. Sometimes he had a beard and carried a spear. He was particularly popular in the New Kingdom Period (1550-1070 b. c.e.), when he was addressed as “the Savior” because of his martial powers and his solar connection. Mock battles were conducted at his festival, and he was a patron against enemies and pests. Anhur remained popular in later eras, after the fall of the New Kingdom, especially in abydos. He was also honored at thinis. nectanebo ii (r. 360-343 b. c.e.) built a temple for Anhur and in later eras the god was called “the Lord of the Lance.” He then was portrayed as an avenger of the god Re.
Ani An obscure deity of Egypt, a form of khons (1), the moon god, Ani was worshiped in the early periods of the nation, following unification c. 3000 b. c.e. His consort was the goddess Anit.
Aniba The site of a New Kingdom (1550-1070 b. c.e.) FORTRESS, located between the first and second cataracts in NUBIA, or Kush (modern Sudan), the fort was originally surrounded by three walls and contained the remains of a temple and storage facilities dating to the Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 b. c.e.). The newer structures date to the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1307 b. c.e.). A necropolis near Aniba was used for New Kingdom tombs and pyramids. Rock chapels were discovered on the western shore of the Nile, opposite the site, as well as an ancient cemetery plot. In one era, Aniba served as the administrative center for the region. HUY (1), the viceroy of Kush, serving tut’ankhamun (r. 1333-1323 b. c.e.), resided at Aniba.
Ani Papyrus A document that is one of the surviving BOOKS OF THE DEAD, written for a man named Ani, it measures 178 feet, three inches and contains mortuary texts from the New Kingdom (1550-1070 b. c.e.). The Ani Papyrus is noted for its illustrations and its tales and legends, some of which are included in other available papyri of that nature. The litany of osiris and a treatise on the origins of the gods and the union of re and Osiris distinguish the papyrus as well. A feature of the Ani Papyrus is a section that contains the opinions of the various priestly colleges in existence in the New Kingdom.
See also mortuary rituals; tomb texts.
Ankh The symbol of eternal life in ancient Egypt, as well as the word for physical life, the ankh resembled a cross with a loop at the top and represented eternity when positioned in the hands of deities. The symbol dates to the establishment of the cults of the deities ISIS and osiris in the Early Dynastic Period (2920-2575 b. c.e.). The original meaning of the symbol was lost in later periods, but it remained a constant hieroglyphic insignia for life. The ankh was used in rituals, especially in those involving the royal cults, and it had special significance when used in various temple ceremonies.
See also amulet; eternity.
Ankhefenmut (fl. 11th century b. c.e.) Prince of the Twenty-first Dynasty
He was the son of psusennes i (r. 1040-992 b. c.e.) and Queen mutnodjmet (2) but did not succeed his father, perhaps because he was a younger son or died early Ankhefenmut’s tomb was prepared for him by Psusennes I in southern tanis.
Ankhesenamon (Ankhesenpa’aten) (fl. 14th century b. c.e.) Royal woman of the Eighteenth Dynasty A daughter of akhenaten (r. 1353-1335 b. c.e.) and Queen nefertiti, she was born to the royal family in the city of ’amarna. Ankhesenamon was married to tut’ankhamun and became queen when he succeeded smenkhare in 1333 b. c.e. The royal couple ruled only 10 years. Tut’ankhamun was eight years old when he took the throne and Ankhesenamon was 13. At ’Amarna she was called Ankhesenpa’aten. During her marriage to Tut’ankhamun, she gave birth to two stillborn babies who were buried with the young pharaoh.
Perhaps fearful of the priests and the growing power of HOREMHAB, a general of the armies who had stirred opposition to ’Amarna and the worship of the god aten, Ankhesenamon took a drastic step when Tut’ankhamun died. She wrote to King suppiluliumas i of the hittites, an emerging power on the northern Mediterranean, offering herself and the throne to one of his royal sons. A prince, zannanza, set out for Egypt and the wedding but was murdered at the border of Egypt.
AYA (2), a master of the horse in thebes, was chosen to succeed Tut’ankhamun. As the royal widow, Ank-hesenamon was given to him as his bride. Some question has been raised as to the possibility that Aya was the father of Nefertiti, which would have made him Ankhesenamon’s grandfather. The couple assumed the throne before the burial of Tut’ankhamun, thus performing the required ritual that each successor had to provide for the deceased pharaoh in the tomb. Aya died in 1319 B. C.E., but Ankhesenamon disappeared from the scene before that, giving way to Aya’s wife, tey, also a commoner.
Ankhesneferibre (fl. sixth century b. c.e.) Royal woman of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, a God’s Wife of Amun She was a daughter of psammetichus ii (r. 595-589 B. C.E.) and Queen takhat (3) adopted by the Divine Ado-ratrice Nitocris and succeeding her as the god’s wife of AMUN in Thebes. Ankhesneferibre served in the office for almost 60 years. Her sarcophagus, made of basalt, is now in the British Museum in London. A schist statuette of her was also recovered in karnak.
Ankh-Hor (fl. sixth century b. c.e.) Vizier and temple official of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty
He served psammetichus ii (r. 595-589 b. c.e.) as the VIZIER of Upper Egypt, the overseer of the priests of AMUN, the mayor of MEMPHIS, and the steward of the Divine Adoratrice nitocris (2). Ankh-Hor also served APRIES (r. 589-570 b. c.e.). His tomb at dra-abu el-naga in Thebes is large. The tomb contains pylons, courts, pillared halls, and subterranean burial chambers.
Ankhkhaf (fl. 26th century b. c.e.) Princely vizier of the Fourth Dynasty
He was a son of snefru (r. 2575-2551 b. c.e.), serving the royal family as a vizier. This royal line maintained control by using only family members in high positions of trust and authority. Ankhkhaf’s statue, actually a bust of exquisite artistry, is in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. He married hetepheres (2) and predeceased her. His tomb was the largest mastaba in the eastern cemetery in GIZA.
Ankh-ma-hor (Sheshi) (fl. 23rd century b. c.e.) Medical official of the Sixth Dynasty, noted for his tomb in Saqqara
Ankh-ma-hor was a vizier and physician in the court of PEPIII (r. 2246-2152 b. c.e.). He was buried in saqqara in a site called “the street of tombs,” and his gravesite is called “the Doctor’s Tomb” because of the medical scenes painted on its walls. The tomb has six chambers, including a SERDAB, a room designed to allow a statue of the deceased to watch the daily rituals being offered on his or her behalf. portraits of Ankh-ma-hor and scenes, including animals and daily activities, are also present. in some records he is listed as sheshi.
Ankhnesmery-Re (1) (fl. 23rd century b. c.e.) Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty
She was a consort of pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b. c.e.). The daughter of an official named Khui, and the sister of Djau and ankhnesmery-re (2), she became the mother of MERENRE. Ankhnesmery-Re is reported as having died giving birth to this son or dying soon afterward. she was also the mother of Princess neith (2) who married PEPI II.
Ankhnesmery-Re (2) (fl. 23rd century b. c.e.) Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty
She was a consort of pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b. c.e.). The daughter of an official named Khui, and the sister of Djau and ANKHNESMERY-RE (1), she became the mother of pepi II. When the young Pepi II succeeded his brother MERENRE (i), Ankhnesmery-Re served as regent for her child. She was aided by Djau, her brother, who served as VIZIER during the regency. They raised the young heir and kept Egypt stable until he reached his majority. The story of the two sisters Ankhnesmery-Re was discovered on a tablet in abydos.
Ankhnes-Pepi (fl. 22nd century b. c.e.) Royal woman of the Sixth Dynasty
She was a lesser consort of pepi ii (r. 2246-2152 b. c.e.). Ankhnes-Pepi lived to see her son or grandson, nefer-KURE, become the founder of the Eighth Dynasty in 2150 B. C.E. She was buried in a storage chamber and entombed in a sarcophagus borrowed for the occasion from a family friend who had prepared it for his own funeral. Her remains were placed in saqqara, in the tomb pyramid of Queen iput (2). The tomb of Ankhnes-Pepi was formed by adding a false door to the original burial chamber area of iput.
Ankhsheshongy (fl. first century b. c.e.) Egyptian sage who wrote his Instructions c. 100 b. c.e. preserved on papyrus, this literary work is written in the demotic style and discusses the moral precepts of the age. Traditionally it is believed that Ankhsheshongy wrote his Instructions while in prison for some crime, c. 100 b. c.e. This didactic text was popular, as it echoed the centuries’ old spirit of the traditional aspirations of the Egyptians in a period of Greek dominance and Hellenic literary forms.
Ankh-tawy The ancient name for the city of Memphis or part of its environs, meaning “Life of the Two Lands.” The city’s name was changed to Men-nefer-Mare in the Sixth Dynasty in the reign of pepi i (r. 2289-2255 b. c.e.).
He built his pyramid nearby, called by that name. The Greeks translated Men-nefer-Mare as Memphis.
Ankhtify (fl. c. 2100 b. c.e.) Powerful aristocratic rebel He was the ranking noble of hierakonpolis, who resided in el-MOALLA, south of thebes in the Ninth Dynasty (2134-? b. c.e.). Ankhtify led an army against THEBES and was defeated in his efforts to establish an independent southern kingdom. His tomb in el-Moalla has six chambers and is decorated with paintings depicting various activities and portraits of him and his wife.
Ankhu (fl. 18th century b. c.e.) Court official and a family of public servants
Ankhu and his clan served during the Thirteenth Dynasty (1784-c. 1640 b. c.e.) at el-LiSHT and at thebes. Two of his memorial statues are in the Louvre in paris. He recorded extensive restorations in abydos. Several generations of the Ankhu family conducted official business for the crown. One Ankhu was in the service of KHENDJER (c. 1740 B. C.E.) and SOBEKHOTEP III (c. 1745 B. C.E.).
Ankhwennofre (fl. second century b. c.e.) Rebel of Egypt in the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes
He ruled many areas of the Nile Valley, prompted by the death of ptolemy iv philopator and the intervention of the Seleucid king antiochus iii the great. The Ptolemaic army was defeated by Antiochus III at Panion, resulting in the loss of Egypt’s Asiatic possessions. ptolemy v focused on Ankhwennofre and defeated him, putting an end to the rebellion and to the threatened succession of upper Egypt.
See also rebels of egypt.