1050: THE MOTTE AND BAILEY CASTLE 1035 William the Bastard becomes duke of Normandy. 1054 Separation of Roman (Catholic) and Byzantine (Orthodox) churches becomes final. 1060–1108 Philip I rules in France. 1066–71/72 Normans conquer England, build castles. 1066–87 William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, rules as king of England. 1066–1100 Tower of London is built. 1070s The Hospitalers are founded. 1085 Christians capture Toledo in Spain. 1087–89 First castle of Rochester is built. 1095 Pope Urban calls for the First Crusade. 1096–99 Crusaders undertake the First Crusade. 1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem. 1100: THE GREAT TOWER 1100–35 Henry I rules in England. 1108–37 Louis VI the Fat rules in France. 1118 Order of Knights Templar is founded. 1120s Rochester and Kenilworth castles are built. 1136–54 English civil wars are fought. 1137–80 Louis VII rules in France. 1137–52 Eleanor of Aquitaine is queen of France. 1146 St. Bernard preaches the Second Crusade. 1146/47–49 Second Crusade is undertaken. 1152–90 Frederick Barbarossa reigns as Holy Roman Emperor. 1154–89 Henry II Plantagenet rules in England; Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry and becomes queen of England. 1160 Tomar, Portugal, is built. 1165–1200 Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, is constructed; nave is built 1180–1200. 1170 Thomas à Becket is murdered. 1173 Becket is canonized. 1174 Henry II does penance. 1174–93 Saladin leads the Muslims. 1180–1223 Philip Augustus rules in France. 1180s–90s Tower at Kenilworth is built. 1187 The Muslims led by Saladin capture Jerusalem. 1189–99 Richard the Lion Hearted rules in England. 1189–1204 Eleanor of Aquitaine is gueen mother of England. 1190–93 Third Crusade is undertaken. 1196–98 King Richard builds Chateau Gaillard. 1200: THE ENCEINTE OR ENCLOSURE CASTLE; FORTIFIED MANOR HOUSES AND CITIES 1202–4 Fourth Crusade is undertaken. 1203–4 The French capture Chateau Gaillard. 1204 Western crusaders capture Constantinople. 1204–61 Constantinople becomes a Latin kingdom. 1205 The French capture the castle of Chinon. 1215 King John signs the Magna Carta. 1216 Rochester is besieged. 1216–72 Henry III rules in England. 1226–34 Blanche of Castile is queen mother and regent for Louis IX. 1226–70 Louis IX (St. Louis) rules in France. 1228–38 Castle of Angers is built. 1248–54 Louis IX leads the Seventh Crusade; he establishes Aigues Mortes as a port. 1267–70 Louis IX undertakes a crusade to Tunis. 1272–1307 Edward I rules in England. 1278–1309 Master James of St. George designs castles in Wales. 1285–90 Harlech Castle is built. 1285–1314 Philip IV, the Fair, rules in France. 1285–1322 Caernarfon town and castle are built. 1290 License is issued to crenellate Stokesay. 1291 Muslims drive Christians from Holy Land. 1297 Louis IX is canonized. 1300: CITADELS AND ROYAL CITIES; THE RESIDENTIAL CASTLES; MANOR HOUSES 1305–78 The Pope lives in Avignon. 1307–14 Templars are persecuted. 1307–27 Edward II rules in England. 1319 King Dinis of Portugal founds the Order of Christ. 1321 Dante dies. 1326–27 The Toll castles, Gutenfels and Pfaltz, are built in Germany. 1327–77 Edward III rules in England. 1328–47 Bishop Henry Gower, St. David’s, Wales, builds the Bishop’s Palace. 1337–1453 France and England engage in the Hundred Years War. 1340–99 John of Gaunt is duke of Lancaster. August 26, 1346 Gunpowder is used in Battle of Crecy. 1347–48 Black Death begins. 1350–64 John II, the Good, rules in France. 1364–80 Charles V rules in France. 1370–82 The Bastille in Paris is built. 1372–88 John of Gaunt claims the kingdom of Castile. 1377–99 Richard II rules in England. 1378–1417 Schism occurs in the Church; rival popes rule from Rome and Avignon. 1380–1422 Charles VI rules in France. 1384 Angers Castle is rebuilt. 1386–90 Bodiam Castle is built. 1399–1413 Henry IV rules in England. 1400: THE PALATIAL CASTLE; FORTRESSES TO WITHSTAND CANNON 1400 Geoffrey Chaucer dies. 1413–22 Henry V, king of England, defeats French at Agincourt, marries Katherine of France (after death of Henry, Katherine marries Owen Tudor). 1415 Pleasance at Kenilworth is built. 1418–60 Henry the Navigator finances expeditions in the Atlantic and along the African coast. 1422–61 Charles VII rules in France. 1422–71 Henry VI rules in England. 1427–50 Charles VII lives at Chinon. 1431 Joan of Arc is burned at the stake in Rouen. 1432 Rogier van der Weyden paints St. George and the Dragon. 1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks. 1454 Johannes Gutenberg uses moveable type in a printing press. 1455–85 Wars of the Roses is fought in England. 1483–85 Richard III rules in England. 1485–1509 Henry (Tudor) VII rules in England. 1487 Portuguese explorers sail around the Cape of Good Hope, Africa. 1492 Columbus reaches America. 1492 Granada, the last Moorish kingdom in Spain, falls to the Christians. 1500: THE PALACE 1509–47 Henry VIII rules in England. 1513–21 Castle (Chateau) of Chenonceau is built. 1558–1603 Elizabeth I rules in England. 1575 Elizabeth visits Kenilworth as guest of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. 1575 Mary Queen of Scots visits Chenonceau.