Login *:
Password *:


13-05-2015, 15:04


The tribes we have thus briefly mentioned are regarded by some as representatives of the Neolithic people. Prof. Winchell, speaking of the wide-spread extension of the Turanian race, assures us, that "history, tradition, linguistics, and ethnology conspire to fortify the conclusions that, in prehistoric times, all Europe was overspread by the Mongoloid (Turanian) race, of which remnants have survived to our own times in the persons of the Basques, Finns, Esths, Lapps, and some smaller tribes."45 Researches into the surroundings of these people, combined with what we have already learned as to the culture, customs, and manners of the Neolithic people in the preceding pages, throw no little light on this age. The darkness of oblivion seems dispelled by the light of science, and we behold before us the Europe of Neolithic times, thickly inhabited by a race of people, small in stature, dark visaged, and oval-faced—fond of war and the chase, yet having a rude system of agriculture. The picture seems complete; and we have now only to raise some inquiries as to the great stock of people to which they belonged, and conjecture as to the date of their arrival in Europe.46

We are now learning that far back in the past, when mankind was yet young in the world, the great Turanian family held a commanding position. They seem to have dispersed widely over the earth. Their migrations began long before that of the Aryan and Semitic people. When tribes of these later people began their wanderings, they found a Turanian people inhabiting the country wherever they went. Long before the times of Abraham, the fertile plains of Chaldea were the home of powerful tribes of this family. Egypt, and the fertile Nile Valley, the home of ancient civilization, was their possession at a time long preceding the rise of the Pharaohs. Their Asiatic origin is corroborated by what we have learned of their domestic animals and cereals, which we know to be also from Asia, or the south- east. These Turanian tribes, at some far remote time, must have appeared in Asia Minor. Urged onward by the pressure of increasing population, they passed into Europe and Northern Africa. Their progress was, doubtless, slow; but they gradually filled Europe. The English Channel must have presented no inconsiderable barrier, and it was after Europe had been populated for a long time that they ventured to brave its passage in their rude canoes.

The Neolithic culture, which we have treated of in reference to Europe only, is seen to have been of Turanian origin. From its Asiatic home it spread over the entire world—to the islands of the Pacific, and even America. The road that leads from barbarism to civilization is long and difficult, and it is not strange that but one or two families of men were able to attain that end by their own unaided effort.47 The Turanian Family, which probably advanced man from savagism into barbarism, seems to have at that stage exhausted its energies. This is but an illustration of the fact that a race, like an individual, has a period of growth, a maturity of healthful powers, and an old age of slow decadence. After thus dispersing over the world, carrying with them the culture of the Neolithic Age, they seem to have halted in their progress. It remained for a new people, starting, perhaps, from the same state of culture, but with new energies, to discover and employ metals in the construction of tools and implements. This gave them so great a command over nature that civilization became possible. But whatever considerable advance the Turanian races were able to make beyond the Neolithic culture was by reason of intercourse with these later people. Where completely isolated from them, as in the New World, they remained, for the most part, in the Neolithic culture.48

We have hitherto spoken as if there was but one race in Europe during Neolithic times. In the main this is true; yet, near the close of this time, a different race arrived in Europe. That this is so, is proved by the same line of evidence used to determine the Neolithic people. We shall have much to say of them hereafter. They were the vanguard of the great Aryan race. This calls for some explanation. It has been found that the principal languages of Europe and South-western Asia have certain common characteristics; so much so that we are justified, even compelled, to assume that the nations speaking these languages, such for instance as the Teutonic, Sclavic, Italic, Greek, Persian, Hindoostanee, and others, are descendants from a common ancestor. These people are called, collectively, Aryans. They were the ones who drove the Turanians out of the fairest portions of Europe. Though they appeared at a late date, they have filled the most important places in history, and the civilization of the world to-day is Aryan.

Now we must again form a mental picture of Neolithic Europe— after it had been for a long time in the possession of the Turanian tribes, the first band of Aryan invaders make their appearance. They must have appeared somewhere near the south- eastern confines of Europe, but they pressed forward to the western portion. They firmly seated themselves in the western and central parts of Europe, driving out the Turanian tribes who had so long possessed the land. They were themselves still in the Neolithic stage of culture. But they probably did not long antedate the knowledge of metals. Mr. Dawkins thinks that it caught up with them before they arrived in Britain, and that they are the ones who introduced bronze into that island. The Aryan tribe, who thus made their appearance in Europe, are identified as the Celts of history.

The Neolithic Age thus drew to its close, but not all at once. It disappeared first in the southern portion of Europe—from Greece and Italy; but it lingered to a far later date in the north: among the scattered tribes of Turanian people it would still assert its sway. Even after metals were introduced, the cheapness and abundance of stone would cause it to be used, among the poorer people at least. But finally this culture gives way to a higher one in Europe—though it still survived in portions of Asia, the Isles of the Pacific, and in America. We can but reflect on the difference between the two ages of stone. The former ends amidst Arctic scenes—and, in the darkness that ensues, ages pass before we again detect the presence of man. The Neolithic closes gradually, everywhere giving way to a higher culture. We must not forget that our present civilization owes much to our far away Neolithic ancestors. When we reflect on the difficulties that had to be overcome before animals could be profitably held in a domestic state, or cultivation of the earth made profitable, we almost wonder that they succeeded in either direction. Aside from these, we turn to them for the origin of trade, navigation, and mining. No inconsiderable part of the battle of civilization had thus been won.


  1. The manuscript of this chapter was submitted to Prof.
    Winchell, of the University of Michigan, for criticism.

  2. Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 146.

  3. Ibid. p. 147.

  4. Nicholson's "Manual of Zoology," p. 59.

  5. Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 74.

  6. Nicholson's "Manual of Zoology," p. 42.

  7. Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 323.

  8. Nicholson's "Zoology," p. 402.

  9. Dana's "Geology," p. 302.

  10. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 6.

  11. Dana's "Geology," p. 382.

  12. Haywood's, Heer's, "Primeval World of Switzerland."

  13. Dana's "Man. Geology," p.395.

  14. Nicholson's "Man. Zoology," p.42.

  15. Marsh: "American Assoc. Rep.," 1877.

  16. Marsh: "American Assoc. Rep.," 1877.

  17. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 6.

  18. Nicholson's "Manual of Zoology," pp. 419 and 504.

  19. When we talk of first appearance, we mean the discovery of
    remains. All who believe in the doctrine of evolution, know that
    the class Mammalia must have appeared early in Paleozoic times.
    Thus, Mr. Wallace says, "Bats and whales—strange
    modifications of mammals—appear perfectly well developed in
    the Eocene. What countless ages back must we go for the origin of
    these groups—the whales from some ancestral carnivorous
    animal, the bats from the insectivora!" and even then we have to
    seek for the common origin of these groups at far earlier
    periods. "So that, on the lowest estimate, we must place the
    origin of the Mammalia very far back in Paleozoic times."
    ("Island Life," p. 201.)

  20. This word is also spelled Kainozoic, and Cainozoic. We follow
    Dana, p. 140.

  21. Dana, "Manual of Geology," p. 488.

  22. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 28.

  23. Many of these animal forms were common during the early
    Eocene. (Winchell.)

  24. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 29.

  25. Dana, "Geology," p. 517.

  26. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 32.

  27. Marsh. "American Assoc. Rep.," 1877.

  28. Haywood's Heer's "Primeval World of Switzerland," p.

  29. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 20.

  30. Ibid., p. 43.

  31. Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 498.

  32. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 42.

  33. Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 514.

  34. Haywood's Heer's "Primeval World of Switzerland," p.

  35. Haywood's Heer's "Primeval World of Switzerland."

  36. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," pp. 57 and 64.

  37. Ibid., p. 57: also, Haywood's Heer's "Primeval World of

  38. Nicholson's "Manual of Zoology," p. 605.

  39. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 58.

  40. Ibid. 58.

  41. McLean: "Mastodon, Mammoth, and Man," p. 67.

  42. Dawkins's "Early Man in Europe," p. 66.

  43. See "Outline," p. 41.

  44. Lyell's "Antiquity of Man," p. 193.

  45. Quatrefages's "Human Species," p. 151.

  46. Prof. Winchell says: "Quatrefages does not now consider the
    proof decisive (Hommes Fossiles et Hommes Sauvages, Paris,
    1884, p. 95)." He cites, as agreeing with him, MM. Cotteau,
    Evans, "and, I believe, most of the members who have not publicly
    pronounced themselves."

  47. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 67.

  48. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 68.

  49. "Human Species," p. 152.

  50. Prof. Winchell remarks that, though some savage races might
    have been living in tropical lands during the Miocene, still the
    oldest skull and jaws obtainable in Europe are of a higher type
    than these.

  51. Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 523.

  52. Marsh: "American Assoc. Rep.," 1877.

  53. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 73.

  54. Ibid., p. 78.

  55. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 77.

  56. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 76.

  57. Winchell's "Pre-Adamites," Whitney's "Auriferous Gravels of
    California," Marsh's "Address before American Assoc.," 1879.

  58. "Antiquity of Man," p. 234.

  59. "Prehistoric Times," p. 433.

  60. Geikie's "Prehistoric Europe," p. 343.

  61. Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain."

  62. Ibid.

  63. "Prehistoric Europe," p. 318.

  64. Quatrefages's "Hum. Species," p. 150; Geikie's "Prehistoric
    Eur.," p. 345.

  65. "Pre-Adamites."

  66. Geikie's "Prehistoric Europe," p. 344.

  67. Ibid.

  68. "Early Man in Britain," p. 92.

  69. Geikie's "Prehistoric Europe," p. 344.

  70. Same as Glacial. See "Outline," p. 41.

  71. "Early Man in Britain," p. 92.

  72. "Prehistoric Europe," p. 345, note 2.