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28-06-2015, 23:09


Throughout the text, the transliteration of terms, notions and proper names from non-Latin alphabet languages and sources is carried out in the following ways:

Russian: The Russian and East Slavic names and terms are Romanized according to the Library of Congress Transliteration System with slight modifications [e. g., Yeliseev instead of Eliseev, Dostoevsky instead of Dostoevskii],

 Arabic: The Classical Islamic terms and notions are transliterated according to the The Encyclopedia of Islam transliteration system [e. g,, Shawwdl instead of fevvdl], although avoiding excessive diacritics [e. g,, Safar instead of Safar],

Ottoman: For the terms and proper names associated with the Ottoman Empire, the proper Turkish transliteration reflecting the orthographic peculiarities of the Ottoman language is preferred over Arabic or Modern Turkish [e. g., Mahmud instead of Mahmud or Mahmut; Tercumdn-i Hakikdt instead of Tercuman-i Hakikat].

 Turkic: The Turkic languages are transliterated reflecting their orthographic and phonetic peculiarities, instead of their substitution with the closest

Ottoman or Turkish counterpart [Aq Masjid instead of Ak Mescit, vildyat instead of vildyet].

However, for certain words like mullah and Pasha, which are widely used in English, the Standard English spelling is preferred,

Although in the main text the possible reference to a publication follows the Gregorian calendar, the dates in the footnotes appear in their original form, In case of the mention of several dates for the same publication, the most persistent and convenient one is chosen, For the dates in hidjri or Rumi calendars, the appropriate Gregorian year is added in brackets upon their first mention,