If American involvement in the war constrained the freedoms of German Americans, pacifists, and anyone else labeled as disloyal, it enlarged the liberty of women. The most salient consequence was woman's suffrage. The campaign to obtain the vote for women went back to the mid-nineteenth century, and suffragists had become a powerful lobby in cities and several states by the early twentieth century, but even a Progressive leader like President Wilson had opposed a national suffrage amendment. In the course of the war, with women playing a crucial and visible role in national life, that position became untenable. Wilson shifted to support woman's suffrage in January 1918. He was, he claimed, modvated by the support women had given to the war. Meanwhile, the influence of other opponents faded. The amendment giving women the vote passed Congress in June 1919; the states ratified it in fourteen months.