Scriptions from Panticapaeum and Aphrodisias confirm that such a group existed and was possibly distinct from natural-born Jews (Reynolds and Tannenbaum, 1987, pp. 54-55; see also Biblical Archaeology Review 12.5 ; 44-69). The location of the inscription in the fifth row suggests a degree of prestige attributed to the Jews (Paul Trebilco, Jewish Communities in Asia Minor, Cambridge, 1991, p. 162). Jews apparently resided in the city beginning in at least the first century CE. Josephus (Antiq. 14:244-246) mentions a decree from the Roman proconsul Publius Sevilius Galba who restored the rights of tire Jews that had been revoked by the city (e. g., observance of the sabbatli, practice of rituals, and collection of tithes). A Roman basilica with an adjacent courtyard was identified by Von Gerkan as a synagogue. [iSee Basilicas; Synagogues.] It was built in the late third or early fourtli century but had no Jewish symbols associated witli it. The identification, which was based on its architectural similarity to synagogues found in Palestine, is suspect: one column had a decree from Helios Apollo commanding that an altar to Poseidon be built.
A monument with a rounded base near the harbor was apparently set up by the Milesians in honor of an emperor, probably Augustus. Another edifice north of the monument was set up by Grattius, a Roman, and is similar in structure. A large sixteen-harbor gateway with sixteen columns was built in the first half of the first century CE. A processional way fianked by sidewalks went through it. Baths were built by Vergilius Capito, a procurator of Asia Minor under Claudius. A stoa erected by Tiberius Claudius Sophanes lies opposite the north agora and west of the baths. [&e Baths.] The very well-preserved Faustina baths from tire Roman period were sponsored by the wife of Marcus Aurelius (i 61180 ce), as was the theater. Other remains of buildings include a temple to Serapis and a heroon. The northern gateway of the southern agora has also been reconstructed and is in the Berlin Museum.
A provincial cult, one of three in Asia, was established at Milems under Caligula. Such a cult indicated that the city was seen as wealthy and of impeccable heritage. It also reveals tlie political bond tliat existed between the demos of tile city and Rome. The cult lasted only a few years, however. An inscription mentioning it has been found at nearby Didyma, in its Apollo temple, an important cult for Miletus. [5ee Didyma.] The inscription talks about a statue of tlie emperor Gains Caesar Germanicus at the time a certain Gains Vergilius Capito “was high priest of the temple in Miletus of Gains Caesar for the first time, . . . and (when) Tiberius Julius Menogenes, son of Demetrios the nomothete [legislator] was high priest the second time and neokoros [cult official] of the temple in Miletus. ..” (Steven J. Friesen, Twice Neokoros: Ephesus, Asia and the Cult of the Flavian Imperial Family, Leiden, 1993, p. 22). Capito also had a cult established in his name at Miletus, purportedly the last such cult for a Roman who was not the emperor. When Gains died, Miletus’s provincial cult was discontinued. The cult had been unusual for a provincial cult in not mentioning the senate or Rome or referring to Gaius as divine.
Miletus had close connections with the Temple of Apollo in Didyma, approximately 6 Ion (10 mi.) to tire south. A Sacred Way connecting the two sanctuaries was paved with large limestone slabs sometime during the reign of Trajan— a pattern found in many locations throughout the eastern empire. Fountains, a large gate, and halls with colonnades are associated with the road. Miletus experienced several significant building periods: during the time of Eumenes II, ruler of Pergamon in the second cenmry bce; and under tire emperors Trajan (who also dedicated a monumental nym-phaeum to his father) and Marcus Aurelius, primarily tlrrough the benefactions of his wife, Faustina (see above).
The site also flourished during the reign of Diocletian, when a good deal of building took place. Shordy afterward, however, buildings fell into disrepair and small, poorly and haphazardly built structures ignored the previous city plan. A modest revival occurred during tlie reign of Justinian I, in the Byzantine period, when a new cathedral and baths were built and tlie harbor was dredged. The city also had an archbishop in 536. The exquisite mosque, Ilyas Bey, completed in 1404 is still standing. According to Acts 20:15-38, Paul addressed elders from Ephesus here before his return to Jerusalem (cf. 2 Tm. 4:20).
Akurgal, Eki'em. Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey. 7th ed. Istanbul, 1990. Fine summary in English by one of Turkey’s most prominent archaeologists.
Forrer, E. O. “Die Griechen indenBoghazkoiTexten.” Orientalisiische Lileraturzeilung (1924): 113-118.
Forrer, E. O. “Vorhomerische Griechen in den Keilschrifttexten von Boghazkoi.” Milteilimgen der deutschen Orienigesellschaft 63 (1924): 1-22.
Hommel, Hildebrecht. “Judcn und Christen imKaiserzeitlichenMilet; tiberlegungen zur Theaterinschrift.” Istanbuhr Milleilungen 25 (197s): 167-195.
Kleiner, Gerhard. DieRuinen vonMilet. Berlin, 1968. Authoritative discussion of tlie site.
Kleiner, Gerhard. Das romische Milet. Weisbaden, 1970. Important discussion of Roman Miletus by one of its principal excavators. Kleiner, Gerhard. “Miletos.” In The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, pp. 578-582. Princeton, 1976.
Krauss, Friedrich. Das Theater von Milet. Milet, vol. 4.1. Berlin, 1973. Macqueen, James G. The Hittites and Their Contemporaries in Asia Minor. London, 1986.
Mayer, M. “Miletos.” In Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Alter-tumswissenschaft, wo. 15, cols. 1622-1655. Stuttgart, 1932.
McRay, John. “Miletus.” In The Anchor Bible Dictionary, vol. 4, pp. 825-826. New York, 1992.
Milet: Ergebnisse der Ausgrabimgen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre i8p9. Berlin, 1906-1990. Multivolume series published by the Deutsches Archaologisches Institut; the most autlioritative presentation of archaeological finds from Miletus, beginning in 1899.
MUIler-Wiener, Wolfgang. Milet iSpg-igSo, Ergebnisse, Probleme und Pmpektiven einer Ausgrabimg: Kolloquium Frankfurt am Main ipSo, Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 31. Tubingen, 1986.
Reynolds, Joyce, and Robert Tannenbaum. Jews and God-Fearers at Aphrodisias: Greek Inscriptions with Commentary. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, supp. vol. 12, Cambridge, 19S7. Robert, Louis. “Le cult de Caligula a Milet et la province d’Asie.” In Robert’s Hellenica, vol. 7, pp. 206-238. Paris, 1949.
Douglas R. Edwards