1050: THE MOTTE AND BAILEY CASTLE 1035 William the Bastard becomes duke of Normandy. 1054 Separation of Roman (Catholic) and Byzantine (Orthodox) churches becomes final. 10601108 Philip I rules in France. 106671/72 Normans conquer England, build castles. 106687 William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, rules as king of England. 10661100 Tower of London is built. 1070s The Hospitalers are founded. 1085 Christians capture Toledo in Spain. 108789 First castle of Rochester is built. 1095 Pope Urban calls for the First Crusade. 109699 Crusaders undertake the First Crusade. 1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem. 1100: THE GREAT TOWER 110035 Henry I rules in England. 110837 Louis VI the Fat rules in France. 1118 Order of Knights Templar is founded. 1120s Rochester and Kenilworth castles are built. 113654 English civil wars are fought. 113780 Louis VII rules in France. 113752 Eleanor of Aquitaine is queen of France. 1146 St. Bernard preaches the Second Crusade. 1146/4749 Second Crusade is undertaken. 115290 Frederick Barbarossa reigns as Holy Roman Emperor. 115489 Henry II Plantagenet rules in England; Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry and becomes queen of England. 1160 Tomar, Portugal, is built. 11651200 Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris, is constructed; nave is built 11801200. 1170 Thomas à Becket is murdered. 1173 Becket is canonized. 1174 Henry II does penance. 117493 Saladin leads the Muslims. 11801223 Philip Augustus rules in France. 1180s90s Tower at Kenilworth is built. 1187 The Muslims led by Saladin capture Jerusalem. 118999 Richard the Lion Hearted rules in England. 11891204 Eleanor of Aquitaine is gueen mother of England. 119093 Third Crusade is undertaken. 119698 King Richard builds Chateau Gaillard. 1200: THE ENCEINTE OR ENCLOSURE CASTLE; FORTIFIED MANOR HOUSES AND CITIES 12024 Fourth Crusade is undertaken. 12034 The French capture Chateau Gaillard. 1204 Western crusaders capture Constantinople. 120461 Constantinople becomes a Latin kingdom. 1205 The French capture the castle of Chinon. 1215 King John signs the Magna Carta. 1216 Rochester is besieged. 121672 Henry III rules in England. 122634 Blanche of Castile is queen mother and regent for Louis IX. 122670 Louis IX (St. Louis) rules in France. 122838 Castle of Angers is built. 124854 Louis IX leads the Seventh Crusade; he establishes Aigues Mortes as a port. 126770 Louis IX undertakes a crusade to Tunis. 12721307 Edward I rules in England. 12781309 Master James of St. George designs castles in Wales. 128590 Harlech Castle is built. 12851314 Philip IV, the Fair, rules in France. 12851322 Caernarfon town and castle are built. 1290 License is issued to crenellate Stokesay. 1291 Muslims drive Christians from Holy Land. 1297 Louis IX is canonized. 1300: CITADELS AND ROYAL CITIES; THE RESIDENTIAL CASTLES; MANOR HOUSES 130578 The Pope lives in Avignon. 130714 Templars are persecuted. 130727 Edward II rules in England. 1319 King Dinis of Portugal founds the Order of Christ. 1321 Dante dies. 132627 The Toll castles, Gutenfels and Pfaltz, are built in Germany. 132777 Edward III rules in England. 132847 Bishop Henry Gower, St. Davids, Wales, builds the Bishops Palace. 13371453 France and England engage in the Hundred Years War. 134099 John of Gaunt is duke of Lancaster. August 26, 1346 Gunpowder is used in Battle of Crecy. 134748 Black Death begins. 135064 John II, the Good, rules in France. 136480 Charles V rules in France. 137082 The Bastille in Paris is built. 137288 John of Gaunt claims the kingdom of Castile. 137799 Richard II rules in England. 13781417 Schism occurs in the Church; rival popes rule from Rome and Avignon. 13801422 Charles VI rules in France. 1384 Angers Castle is rebuilt. 138690 Bodiam Castle is built. 13991413 Henry IV rules in England. 1400: THE PALATIAL CASTLE; FORTRESSES TO WITHSTAND CANNON 1400 Geoffrey Chaucer dies. 141322 Henry V, king of England, defeats French at Agincourt, marries Katherine of France (after death of Henry, Katherine marries Owen Tudor). 1415 Pleasance at Kenilworth is built. 141860 Henry the Navigator finances expeditions in the Atlantic and along the African coast. 142261 Charles VII rules in France. 142271 Henry VI rules in England. 142750 Charles VII lives at Chinon. 1431 Joan of Arc is burned at the stake in Rouen. 1432 Rogier van der Weyden paints St. George and the Dragon. 1453 Constantinople falls to the Turks. 1454 Johannes Gutenberg uses moveable type in a printing press. 145585 Wars of the Roses is fought in England. 148385 Richard III rules in England. 14851509 Henry (Tudor) VII rules in England. 1487 Portuguese explorers sail around the Cape of Good Hope, Africa. 1492 Columbus reaches America. 1492 Granada, the last Moorish kingdom in Spain, falls to the Christians. 1500: THE PALACE 150947 Henry VIII rules in England. 151321 Castle (Chateau) of Chenonceau is built. 15581603 Elizabeth I rules in England. 1575 Elizabeth visits Kenilworth as guest of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. 1575 Mary Queen of Scots visits Chenonceau.