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10-03-2015, 05:06

TANA (TRANSPORTES AEREOS NACIONALES, S. A.): Colombia (1971-1979). TANA is formed at Bogota as Taxi Aereo Nacional

S. A. by Inversiones Alfredo Sesana y Cia in September 1971 to offer charter services to destinations in Panama, Peru, Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Colombia. Following receipt of several Douglas DC03s and DC-4s, all-cargo services begin in early 1972.

The company is reorganized in 1974, adopts a new name and livery, and begins scheduled passenger services linking Cali with Condoto, Ip-iales, Guapi, and Tumaco.

Airline employment in 1978 totals 150 and the fleet comprises 4 DC-4s, 4 DC-3s, and 1 Beech 99. In 1979, the carrier is purchased by a competitor, TAVINA (Trans-Colombiana de Aviacion, S. A.).

TANANA AIR SERVICE: P. O. Box 60713, Fairbanks, Alaska 99706, United States; Phone (907) 474-0301; Fax (907) 474-9311; Code 4E; Year Founded 1972. Tanana Air Taxi of Fairbanks is certified by the State of Alaska in August 1972 to offer intrastate passenger and cargo charter services. President James P. Haggland assembles a fleet comprising 1 Piper PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftain and 2 Piper PA-32 Cherokee Sixes and inaugurates flights to Minto Manley, Tanana, Ruby, and Galena. The company is reformed in 1974 and renamed Alaska Central Airways.

Operations are taken over by Harold Esmaika’s Arkansas-based Harold’s Air Service in 1976. Scheduled commuter services are now inaugurated linking the company’s base with Lake Minchumina, Minto, Manley, and Tanana. Late in the decade, the company acquires an Australian-built GAF Nomad N.24A.

In 1983, the carrier is acquired by new owners and renamed Tanana Air Service; Dale Erickson becomes president.

Operations continue apace over the next 15 years. Enplanements in 1996 reach 3,914, and $1.5 million in operating revenues are generated.

Passenger boardings decline 6.8% in 1997 to 3,649. Business dramatically improves in 1998 as customer bookings rebound and climb 29.2% to 5,000.

Passenger boardings skyrocket 357.8% in 1999 to 22,000.

A total of 10 full-time pilots are employed at the beginning of 2000 to fly the company’s fleet, which now includes 1 PA-31-310 Navajo and 5

PA-32R-300 Lances. In 2000, for the first time, the salmon runs along the entire Yukon watershed collapse. By fall, subsistence salmon fishing must be shut down and Governor Tony Knowles declares an emergency. In addition to the economic loss, thousands of dogs in rural bush areas, used to haul sleds and dependent upon salmon as their food source, face starvation or liquidation. Something must be done to avert this disaster and a number of small airlines, coming off a bad year caused by rising fuel and insurance costs, are able to assist, while also enjoying renewed profits.

The key to the situation, in the eyes of many, is the transport of donated dog food and fish obtained by local governments and tribes as the result of press reports of the failed salmon returns. In late August and September, a massive food shipment is organized by Warbelow’s at Fairbanks, with support from the U. S. Postal Service and other small airlines.

Because Warbelow’s has made special arrangements with its competitors, the USPS, which will not be directly involved in distribution, agrees to allow the donated food to be classified as bypass mail, for which rock-bottom postage is charged. The entire $25,000 bill will be paid by the Tanana Chiefs Conference, which also rents refrigeration to hold frozen foot awaiting delivery.

Under the direction of Chief Pilot Michael Morgan, Warbelow’s, which has the only bypass mail shipping permit in Fairbanks, runs the packages through its meter and with USPS assistance, farms out this mail for delivery. The airlines involved, including Warbelow’s Air Ventures, Frontier Flying Service, Arctic Circle Air Service, Belair, Larry’s Flying Service, Servant Air, Tanana, Tatonduk Air Service, and Wright’s Air Service, are paid a rate per pound (between 400 and $1 depending on distance), to haul the approximately 100 tons of food to villages along the Yukon, Tanana, and Koyukuk Rivers.

TANEJA AEROSPACE AND AVIATION, LTD.: 1010 Prestige Meridian-1, 29, M. G. Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560001, India; Phone 91 (080) 555-0944; Fax 91 (080) 555-0955; Http://www. tane-jaaerospace. com; Year Founded 1997. In collaboration with Parte-navia, S. p.A. of Italy, Taneja is established at Bangalore in 1997 as the first private-sector aircraft manufacturing company in India. The aircraft chosen for development and sale is the six-seater P-68C. The new concern is also the authorized sales and service center in India for Cessna Aircraft Company’s business aircraft, including the Citation bizjets and the Caravan.

In addition to building and sales, Taneja also engages in executive and small-group charter operations and provides medevac flights.

In 2000, the company employs 12 full-time pilots. Parenavia P-68Cs are stationed not only at Bangalore, but also at Bombay, Delhi, Madras, and Madurai.

TANS (TRANSPORTES AEREOS NACIONALES DE LA SELVA, S. A.): Ave. Arequipa 5200, Miraflores, Peru; Phone 241-8510; Http://www. tans. com. pe; Year Founded 1963. TANS is established by the Peruvian Air Force on December 5, 1963 and given the mission of operating missionary routes into the remote areas of the Amazon region. These flights are operated without headline or incident over the next 35 years, employing a fleet of de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otters, Chinese-built Harbin Y-12s, Bell 212 helicopters, and large Russian Mil Mi-17s.

At the urging of Peruvian President Fujimori, TANS is encouraged to expand and on December 15, 1998, the DGAC (Peru’s civilian aviation agency) grants the AF unit permission to begin scheduled services into Cuzco, as well as to Iquitos, Tarapoto, Pucallpa, and Arequipa. The nation’s private carrier’s complain that they are being unfairly forced to compete with a government carrier, but the president brushes their concerns aside, pointing out that the nation’s airline situation demands reliable service. By March 26, 1999, a fleet of four Boeing 737-200s is on hand and flights commence to Lima. Between April and December, service is also added to Chiclayo, Piura, Juliaca, Trijillo, and Tumbes. In the wake of the collapse of Aero Peru (Empresa de Transportes

Aereos de Peru, S. A), TANS is one of several domestic Peruvian airlines given new routes and responsibilities. In November, the carrier applies for permission to switch from a military to a civilian operating license and former Aero Peru Director Hector Arce becomes managing director. At the same time, alliance discussions begin with Continental Airlines.

TANS is recertified as a civilian airline on February 18, 2000. On April 18, it begins operating new services to Tacna, Ayacucho, and Puerto Maldonado. International flights are authorized on May 10. At this point, Cesar Follegati Noriega becomes director general and plans are made to inaugurate roundtrip service from Cuzco to New York.

The relationship with Continental Airlines is strengthened during the year as the two make their booking and billing systems fully compatible. On February 1, 2001, the South American Business Information service will report that the two companies will sign a full code-sharing agreement with the next couple of months.

TANSA (TRANSPORTES AEREOS DE NAYARIT, S. A. de C. V.): A. P. 221, Tepic, 63190, Mexico; Phone 52 (321) 33 111; Fax 52 (321) 33 117; Year Founded 1958. Alberto Velazco Garcia, who has been in the crop dusting business since 1954, elects to officially establish an air taxi and cargo charter operation in 1958. Revenue operations, which had previously been operated with single engine aircraft, are enhanced by the addition of a Douglas DC-3.

Garcia and his son, Alberto Velazco Navarro, operate flights throughout the mountainous region of the western Sierra Madre in the central part of Mexico. Passengers, supplies, building supplies, and other essential items are transported between small communities and the established towns of Puerto Vallarta, Talpa de Affende, Mascota, San Sebastian, Tepic, Santiago Ixcuintla, La Mesa, Mesa del Nayar, San Juan Peyaton North, and Santa Teresa.

A second DC-3 is acquired in 1974. One is based at Puerto Vallarta and the other at Santiago Ixcuintla. When the founder dies in 1991, the company passes to his son.

Flights continue apace through 1999. During the summer, Greg R. Wormser visits the carrier, subsequently penning its only printed profile, “Romancing the Skies,” for the December issue of Airways.

TANZANAIR (TANZANIAN AIR SERVICES, LTD.): P. O. Box 364, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Phone 51-113151; Fax 51-112946; Year Founded 1969. This privately owned carrier is formed at Dar-es-Salaam in February 1969 and begins domestic and international charter flights on July 7. Tim Air Charters, Ltd. is acquired in 1976. During 1977-1984, the fleet grows to include 1 Cessna 414, 1 Piper PA-32 Cherokee Six, 3 Cessna 310s, and 2 Cessna 402Bs. Airline employment reaches 100 and yearly enplanements average 10,000 to 20,000.

Flights continue apace during the remainder of the decade and into the 1990s. D. J. Samaras becomes managing director and the fleet comes to comprise 1 Beech 55 Baron, 1 Beech Bonanza, 2 C-310Rs, 1 C-402B, and 2 C-406 Caravan IIs.

While on approach for a landing at Morogoro on April 24, 1996, one of the Caravan IIs crashes into a mountain; the aircraft is destroyed and the pilot is killed.

The company replaces the lost aircraft in 1997 and goes on to generate $2 million in sales. Flights continue during the remainder of the decade. During these years, the C-402B and Beech Baron are withdrawn.

TAO (TAXI AEREO DE OAXACA, S. A. de C. V.): Mexico (19301943). Capt. Luis Melgosa organizes TAO at Oaxaca in 1938 and begins flying a circular route from that town to Tehuacan-Mixteca with a Stinson Detroiter; route direction is changed on alternate days.

In 1940, the company is renamed Taxi Aereo de Oaxaca and a cargo route is started to the mining areas near Juchatengo. At this point, an old Boeing Model 40 and a Buhl Air Sedan are purchased. Backed by Pan American Airways (PAA), Aeronaves de Mexico, S. A. de C. V. takes over Melgosa’s operation in 1943.

TAO (TAXI AEREO OPITA, S. A.): Colombia (1961-1974). Investors at Neiva, the provincial capital of Huila, reform TAO from a crop-spraying concern originally formed in 1957 into an air taxi during 1961 to provide small plane passenger and package charter flights within the region. A Douglas DC-3 is acquired in 1963 and a regularly scheduled route called La Ruta Cordial del Sur is opened from Neiva to Bogota. Two Curtiss C-46 Commandos are placed on the route during 1965.

Four years later, in 1969, the local service operator purchases a pair of previously owned Vickers Viscount 745s and begins flying to additional destinations. As the British-made turboprops enter service, the Curtiss aircraft are withdrawn.

Operations continue apace in 1970-1971. En route from San Andres to Barranquilla on July 19, 1972, a Viscount 745 is able to land safely at Cartagena after the pilot is shot by B. Suarez, a passenger and the carrier’s chief stockholder. The improved route network is maintained with difficulty in 1973 against stiff competition, increasing fuel costs, and the after effects of the Viscount incident.

Already in great difficulty, the company suffers a fatal tragedy on June 8, 1974. One of the two Viscount 745s with 44 aboard crashes near Cueuta and there are no survivors. TAO now stops flying.

TAP (TRANSPORTES AEREOS DEL PACIFICO, S. A. de C. V.): Mexico (1935-1941). Mario Rivas Mercado and Joaquin Cortina Goribar found TAP at Acapulco on May 31, 1935. With 2 Travel Airs and 3 pilots, including the American “Pistol Pete” Baughan, multistop service is initiated to Oaxaca.

During the late 1930s, pilot Julio Zinzer obtains the carrier and upgrades its Stinson fleet by adding a Sikorsky S-38. In 1941, TAP is sold to Aeronaves de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., at that time backed by Pan American Airways (PAA).

TAP-AIR PORTUGAL (TRANSPORTES AEREOS PORTUGUE-SES, S. A.): Aeroporto de Lisboa, Apartado 50194, Lisbon Codex, 1704, Portugal; Phone 351 (1) 841-5000; Fax 351 (1) 841-5095; Http://www. tap-airportugal. pt; Code TP; Year Founded 1944. By a September 1944 decree, the Portuguese government establishes a Secretariate for Civil Aviation, the purpose of which is to plan and launch regular commercial air operations, primarily to strengthen connections with the nation’s colonies. On March 14, 1945, the new Secretariate creates a special division, Transportes Aereos Portugueses (TAP), to physically fulfill the government mission.

Simultaneously, the independent carrier Companhia de Transportes Aereos, S. A. (CTA) inaugurates scheduled service on a route Lisbon-Oporto. Eight twin-engine Douglas DC-3s and four four-engine DC-4s are ordered and, during the summer and fall, proving flights are undertaken in Europe and to the Azores and Africa. Meanwhile, pilots and maintenance personnel are recruited from the Portuguese Army and Navy and 11 pilots are sent to Britain for training by British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC).

All is placed in readiness and five DC-3s are available; on September 19, 1946, TAP becomes a regularly scheduled public carrier as it inaugurates twice-weekly flights Lisbon-Madrid in cooperation with Iberia Spanish Airlines (2) (Lineas Aereas de Espana, S. A.). On December 31, the so-called “Imperial Line” is opened as the Douglas transports begin 11-stage Lisbon-Lourenco Marquis service, linking the parent country with its African colonies, Angola and Mozambique. This is the longest then-current Dakota route, covering 24,540 km.

Companhia de Transportes Aereos, S. A. (CTA) is disbanded on July 15, 1947 and its assets are acquired by TAP. A Lisbon-Oporto regular service is launched and three DC-4s are delivered, allowing the start-up of operations to Johannesburg. Total enplanements for the year are 8,742.

New European services are started in 1948, initially linking Lisbon to Paris as of August 10. Bookings climb to 14,850.

Airline employment reaches 400 in 1949 and the fleet is upgraded to include 6 DC-3s, 3 DC-4s, and 2 Beech 18s.

Piloted by Capt. Silva Soares, a DC-3 on March 6 inaugurates the company’s roundtrip service between Lisbon and Sao Tome and Principe. The flight will be recreated on TAP’s fiftieth anniversary.

DC-4 Lisbon-London flights also commence and new charter and freight services are initiated.

Economic difficulties are encountered in 1950 and the government begins planning to privatize the carrier. Privatization efforts continue in 1951-1952; enplanements in the former year are 20,765.

In April 1953, Aero Portuguesa, S. A., controlled by Air France, is acquired, together with its equipment, personnel, aircraft, and routes to Tangier and Casablanca. TAP is sold on June 1 to a combine of banking, mercantile, and shipping firms that reorganize it into TAP SARL, a joint stock company with limited liability and a 20-year government concession for world routes as a developmental incentive. Three Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellations are ordered for the airline in December.

The workforce reaches 593 in 1954. DC-4s are introduced on several African routes as bookings accelerate to 27,310. The Super Constellations are delivered in July and September 1955; after workup, they are placed in service, replacing DC-4s on the routes from Lisbon to Luanda and Lourenco Marques via Kano and Leopoldville. Also, they fly roundtrip from Lisbon to Madrid, Paris, and London.

Cargo traffic increases during 1956-1958 and the last of the DC-3s is retired. During the 12 latter months, L-1049Gs fly the Lisbon to Oporto trunk route. Bookings increase each year: 42,341(1956), 47,087 (1957), 64,553 (1958). In 1959, plans are undertaken for the launch of jetliner service. A pooling arrangement is entered into with British European Airways Corporation (BEA) for the lease of Viscounts and Comet 4Bs. At this point, the L-1049E and L-1049H leased from Seaboard & Western Airlines the year before are returned.

Employing the chartered British airliners in 1960, new service is inaugurated to Porto Santo and Madeira; in cooperation with Panair do Brazil, S. A., the Friendship Flight is started to Rio de Janeiro. The African destinations Bissau and Beira are added to the route network in 1961 and four Sud SE-210 Caravelle VIRs are ordered from France. Meanwhile, two L-1049Gs are purchased from Aerovias Guest, S. A. de

C. V. of Mexico.

On November 11, six government opponents hijack an L-1049G during a Casablanca to Lisbon flight and force it to circle the capital city as leaflets are dropped urging revolt; the plane goes on to land at Tangier, Morocco. The Moroccans deport the pirates to Senegal and they eventually receive political asylum in Brazil.

The first Caravelle VIR is delivered on July 13, 1962 and together with the leased Comet 4Bs, is placed into service on new flights to Santa Maria in the Azores and Las Palmas. Chartered Viscounts begin new Lisbon to Frankfurt and Geneva frequencies. Comet 4Bs launch Lisbon-Luanda service in 1963. Orders are placed for Boeing 707s and 727s. As two additional SE-210s become available during the summer, the pooling arrangement with British European Airways Corporation (BEA) is terminated late in the year.

Airline employment is 2,152 in 1964. Direct L-1049G flights are started to Funchal in the Madeira Islands, with connections to Santa Maria, Porto Santo, and Las Palmas. The African Caravelle route is extended from Luanda to Beira.

Systemwide, enplanements during the 12 months are 248,006.

The first B-707-382Bs are delivered via the Portuguese government in early 1965 and are employed to inaugurate new frequencies to Johannesburg. Se-210 service to Brussels, London, and Faro is also started.

Boardings this year climb 26% to 337,883.

Boeing jet service is launched to Rio de Janeiro and New York in June 1966. Caravelle flights Faro-London also commence. The last L-1049G is retired.

With the arrival of 3 B-727-82s, the carrier in 1967 becomes the first European airline to operate an all-jet fleet, now also including 3 Car-avelle VIRs and 2 B-707-382Bs. New services are initiated to Zurich via Geneva, to Copenhagen, Salisbury, Rhodesia, Bissau, Recife, and Buenos Aires via Rio de Janeiro. Pope Paul VI flies a TAP SE-210

Rome-Monte Real on his visit to Fatima. The first administrative computer is installed and the workforce is increased to 3,106.

A total of 536,041 passengers are carried during the year.

Airline employment in 1968 stands at 3,125. Two additional B-707-138Bs and two B-727-82s are delivered and new routes are opened Lis-bon-Amsterdam and Sao Paulo and Faro-Frankfurt. Eduardo Mendes Barbosa is named president in October.

Cargo skyrockets 95% and passenger boardings soar 23.7% to 663,000.

On April 1, 1969, Lisbon to Boston flights begin. Also in April, one more B-707-382B is delivered. Faro and Lisbon-Dusseldorf service is started and Santa Maria is added as a stop on the New York run.

Beginning in February 1970, two additional B-707-382Bs are added, allowing extension of the Mozambique route to Lourenco Marques. Lis-bon-Santa Maria, Boston, and New York service is launched. A B-747-282B is ordered and activities in 1971 center around its delivery on December 20. Enplanements approach a million.

The fleet in 1972 comprises the new wide-body, plus 7 B-707-382Bs, 5 B-727-82s, and 3 SE-210s. A pipe bomb explodes in the company’s New York office on January 24, causing slight damages but no injuries. The premier B-747-282B, christened Portugal, inaugurates Lisbon to New York flights in March. Following delivery of the Brasil on May 16, Jumbojet services are extended during the summer to Rio de Janeiro, Luanda, Mozambique, and Johannesburg. Passenger boardings jump 20.3% to pass the million mark for the first time (1,454,000) and cargo traffic is up by 15%.

Airline employment reaches 8,140 in 1973. Three more aircraft (a sixth B-727-82 and two B-707-3F5Cs) are added and an Oporto-Paris frequency is begun. TAP is now the first airline to fly a Boeing trijet to Funchal.

Passenger boardings accelerate 14% to 1,517,560 and freight rises a spectacular 69%. The employee population numbers 8,568.

Additional European routes and frequencies are added in 1974 as three more B-727s (one each Dash-82C, Dash-172C, and Dash-155C) and a B-707-3F5C are placed in service.

The computerized reservations system TAPMATIC is introduced. The April 25 revolution brings a reassessment of the carrier, its routes and policies. Some 200 employees demonstrate against their management at Lisbon on May 2; the next day, the six-man board of directors resigns. The first step taken to revitalize the carrier is appointment of a new board.

The third B-747-282B arrives on June 7 and is christened Luis de Camoes. On August 29, the government imposes martial law on ground personnel, ending a strike by workers that had paralyzed the national airline. A major shift in route concentration away from Africa to other parts of the world is now undertaken, with the Portuguese flag line becoming one of the few airlines to expand North Atlantic service. Despite the fuel crisis, frequencies to the U. S. and Canada are increased to 17 per week and another B-747-282B is added.

Passenger bookings dip 3.8% to 1.5 million, but freight traffic accelerates by 15.9%

Lisbon-Caracas service is inaugurated 1975. On April 15, the carrier is nationalized, becoming a public company; the current corporate identity, logo, and livery are introduced and three Caravelle VIRs are sold to the Equatorian airline SAN (Servicios Aereos Nacionales, S. A.). The fourth and final B-747-282B, the Bartolomeu de Gusmao, is delivered on October 17. Also in October, as civil war breaks out in Angola, a single B-707-3F5C evacuates 342 passengers and 9.5 tons of cargo to Lisbon in one nonstop flight.

Cargo traffic falls 38.4% and passenger boardings are down 14.6% to 1,307,000.

The employee population is 8,946 in 1976. In protest of the imprisonment of Portuguese citizens by the government, TAP briefly suspends flights, as of January 14, to Mozambique. Cuban Army Pvt. Carlos Manuel Molina Alvaral defects from his country’s forces in Angola and forces the captain of a TAP airliner to fly him from Luanda to Lisbon on April 4, where he seeks political asylum. Lisbon-Milan service begins, also in April.

Two B-747-282Bs, the Bartolomeu de Gusmao and Luis de Camoes, are leased later in the month and later sold to Pakistan International Airlines Corporation (PIA) and, in October, 2 additional B-707-3F5Cs are delivered, bringing the fleet total to 12 707s, 4 B-727-100s, 7 B-727-82s/82Cs, and 2 B-747-282Bs.

Passenger traffic jumps 11% to 1,453,893 and freight grows by 12%.

Three new routes are opened in 1977: Amsterdam and Funchal via Lisbon, Geneva and Funchal via Lisbon, and Oporto and Caracas via Lisbon. Most of the members of the Union of Civil Aviation Pilots strikes TAP between September 11 and December 30.

Poor visibility causes a B-727-82 with 8 crew and 156 passengers to land too far down the runway at Santa Cruz Airport, Madeira, on November 19 after a flight from Brussels via Lisbon. The Boeing overruns the end of the runway and goes over a steep bank, bursting into flames (131 dead).

Enplanements for the year total 1,578,520.

President Eng Frederico Monteiro da Silva’s workforce is 9,224 in

1978. Cabin crews end a strike on January 7, while later, flights to five new European destinations are inaugurated, plus a route Oporto-Salvador, with an extension to Rio de Janeiro. Three B-727-82s are sold as charter operations decline.

En route from Lisbon to Madeira on October 22, a B-727-82 is taken over by a lone assailant claiming to have two pistols and demanding that the aircraft fly to Morocco. After careful observation, the captain determines that the pirate’s weapons are fakes and overpowers him. The ship lands at its destination and the perpetrator is turned over to police.

Cargo jumps 23.8% and passenger boardings accelerate a slight 2.4% to pass the two million mark (2,077,000). On total revenues of $267.9 million, a net loss of $20.6 million is suffered.

The company receives the 1978 “Technology Management Award” from Air Transport World magazine in January 1979. In March, Transportes Aereos Portugueses, S. A. receives a new name, TAP-Air Portugal. A new corporate identity designed to emphasize the airline’s role as the flag carrier is adopted. A new monogram, a bold red, green, and white airplane livery, new wide-body interiors, and new uniforms are unveiled.

One more B-707-3F5C, three B-727-282s, and a de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter are acquired and services to Copenhagen and Brazzaville are inaugurated. An order not finalized for five Lockheed L-1011 TriStar 500s is announced in September.

Passenger bookings rise 2.1% to 2,159,673 and cargo grows 10.5% to 116.5 million FTKs. Still, a $48-million loss is reported.

The workforce is increased by 2.1% in 1980 to 10,003. Three Lockheed L-1011-500s are ordered, another B-727-282 is received, and service is launched to Rome and Barcelona, with a Lagos and New York route is added.

On May 6, 16-year-old Rui Manuel da Costa Rodrigues hijacks Flight 131, a B-707-382B with 90 passengers en route from Lisbon to Faro, demanding to be given a ransom and flown to Switzerland. The aircraft diverts to Madrid for refueling, where the pirate frees all of the passengers, but holds seven crew members as hostages. He is talked into surrendering the next morning.

Later in the year, a major marketing program is launched, aimed at current Brazilian offerings. In October, the TriStar purchase is finalized.

The worldwide recession, however, strikes hard: boardings fall 12.7% to 1.717,000, freight dips 5.5% to 110 million FTKs, and expenses soar 20.3% to $510 million. On total revenues of $434 million, a $76-million loss is taken.

Lisbon-Manchester service begins in May 1981 and a route is restarted to Harare (formerly Salisbury, Rhodesia). A fifth B-727-282 joins the fleet.

Cargo declines 11.3% to 108 million FTKs, as passenger boardings rise 9.4% to 2,055,000. Revenues total $449 million, expenses climb to $504.8 million, and a record $82.8-million loss is incurred.

Airline employment is 9,940 in 1982, a 0.3% decline. Pope John Paul II flies Oporto-Rome aboard the B-707-320B Fernao de Maga; meanwhile, direct Oporto-Manchester service starts and the first B-737-282 is delivered.

Passenger bookings are up 5.8% to 2,175,071, but freight falls again, off 5.5% to 102.24 million FTKs. Despite a cost-control program, expenses rise 4.1% to $473.6 million. On total revenues of $442.5 million, another severe financial loss is incurred, the net being $58.4 million in the red.

The workforce is increased 0.3% to 9,974 in 1983. The first L-1011-500, christened St. Antonio Lisboa, is delivered on January 12. Sometime later, B-727-282 service is kicked-off Oporto-Brussels and Lis-bon-Copenhagen. Executive Class is introduced on European flights.

Cargo declines another 3.7% to 461.38 million FTKs and passenger boardings are down an equal percentage, to 1,926,567. On revenues of $455.7 million, the loss produced this year is $54.2 million.

The employee population swells 1.3% to 10,105 in 1984. Monthly Lisbon-S. Tome (Lagos) flights are inaugurated and the two B-747-282Bs Portugal and Brasil are sold to Trans World Airlines (TWA). The fleet now includes 5 L-1011-500s, 8 B-707-382B/3F5Cs, 7 B-737-282s, and 2 DHC-6s.

Passenger boardings climb 4.8% to 2,125,000 and freight soars 21%to 116.42 million FTKs. Financial data is not released.

The workforce is cut to 9,963 in 1985 and 3 B-707-382Bs are sold. In June, the wholly owned subsidiary Air Atlantas, S. A. is formed to operate Lisbon-U. K. charters with two B-707-382Bs and two B-737-282s transferred under lease from the parent’s fleet; revenue operations commence in the fall.

Passenger boardings climb a slight 0.05% to 2,126,000 and freight jumps 14.6% to 133.39 million FTKs. The year proves healthy financially in that expenses are less than revenues, $529.5 million versus $555.6 million. Still, a $3.3-million net loss is suffered.

The payroll is cut again in 1986, down by 0.7% to 9,896. In November, the carrier sells a B-707-3F5C to the Republic of Zaire and enters into negotiations to sell two others to an unnamed U. S. airline. At year’s end, orders are placed for three Airbus Industrie A310-300s.

Customer bookings jump 5.5% to 2,131,449. Costs far exceed revenues and an operating loss of $32.6 million is suffered.

The number of employees is down 11% in 1987 to 9,787 despite the company’s good year. The Airbus order is increased by one, and requests are made for three B-737-382s. New routes are stretched to Athens, Vienna, Munich, and across the Atlantic to Toronto.

As a result, passenger boardings accelerate 14% to 2,439,140 and freight rises 1.4% to 124.6 million FTKs. Revenues advance 12% to $471.8 million, expenses rise 5.9% to $480.8 million, and the operating loss is down to $9 million.

The workforce falls a very slight 0.7% in 1988 to 9,612. The fleet now includes 9 B-737-282As, 6 L-1011-500s, 4 B-727-282s, 3 B-727-82Cs, and 2 B-707-382Bs. Orders are outstanding for 4 A310-304s, 3 B-737-482s, and 1 L-1011-500.

Beginning in April, a company L-1011-500 becomes the first commercial aircraft to use satellite data communications on a transatlantic flight; the achievement is part of a joint IMMARSAT/ESA/SITA experimental development program. The route network is increased when markets are entered at Cura9ao, Casablanca, Nice, Stuttgart, Hamburg, and Stockholm.

On June 2, twice-weekly roundtrips are inaugurated between Lisbon and Manchester and Dublin. The first A310-304 arrives in December and is placed into service at month’s end over routes to Africa.

Customer bookings swell 8% to 2,635,185 and cargo increases 12.8% to 141.05 million FTKs. 1.05 million FTKs.

The fleet is enhanced in 1989 by the addition of one more L-1011-500, three A310-304s, three B-737-382s, and one B-737-282C. Gone are the three B-727-82Cs and two B-707-382Bs.

Long-haul A310-304 service is initiated twice-weekly from Lisbon to Los Angeles in April via Terceira in the Azores. In July, with financing provided by the European Development Bank and the African Development Bank, the company begins construction of a large maintenance and overhaul base at Sai Airport, Cape Verde Islands.

Passenger boardings are elevated 5.7% to 2,954,832 and freight shoots up 13.4% to 159.36 million FTKs.

Company employment is increased by 8.1% in 1990 to 10,688. Orders are placed for two A340s, with options placed on two others. Much of the fleet is sold and leased back on long-term leases.

During the spring, the carrier blocks attempts by the new regional carrier Portugalia Airlines, S. A. to inaugurate international routes.

Customer bookings increase 10.2% to 3,257,041 and cargo climbs 4.2% to 166.57 million FTKs.

The payroll grows a slight 0.1% in 1991 to 10,700 and the fleet now includes 1 owned and 5 leased A310-304s, 2 chartered A320-211s, 2 leased B-737-230As, 6 chartered B-737-282As, 1 leased B-737-282C, 5 leased B-737-382s, and 7 leased L-1011-500s, 1 of which is subleased to TAAG Angolan Airlines, S. A.

In January, flights are begun linking Lisbon with the Spanish communities of Bilbao, Malaga, Seville, Vigo, and Santiago de Compostela. Later in the year, the carrier becomes a “Sociedade Anonima” or public limited company in which the state holds most of the shares.

Unlike most European airlines, the Portuguese flag carrier actually increases its passenger traffic, albeit only 1.9%, to 3,317,386 passengers flown. Freight slides 2.3% to 162.74 million FTKs.

Although there is no change in employment in 1992, two additional A320-211s are leased from Bavarian Fluggesellschaft, GmbH., along with two B-737-382s. In March, the company joins with TAAG Angola Airlines in the creation of a catering and handling operation based at Luanda Airport. An L-1011-500 TriStar is also leased to the African company.

Customer bookings jump 8.8% to 3,607,995 and cargo moves ahead by 2.3% to 166.54 million FTKs.

In 1993, President Eng Fernando Santos Martins oversees a workforce of 10,700. The owned A310-304 is replaced by four more leased A320-211s, two coming over from Bavaria Fluggesellschaft, GmbH. New international markets are opened at Basel, Bordeaux, Marseilles, and Toulouse. During July, it is announced that the carrier requires a government capital investment of $500-$626 million to keep it, like Sabena Belgian World Airlines, S. A., from collapsing under the weight of recession.

The government agrees to the investment and announces that plans are being formed to privatize 49% of the airline before year’s end, if the airline’s unions agree to a cut of 2,600 positions over the next 2 years and if a restructuring plan can be created. Protesting the plan at a fall rally of 3,000 employees, several hundred dissidents stage a wildcat strike, blocking a Lisbon airport runway and halting flight departures.

The strike ends when Portuguese Transport Minister Joaquim Martins-Ferreira do Amaral agrees to discuss the restructuring plan with union leaders. Weekly nonstop roundtrips commence November 1 between Lisbon and Tel Aviv.

Customer bookings inch up 0.2% to 3,616,885 and cargo does better, climbing 2.4% to 170.53 million FTKs.

Airline employment is increased by 11.2% in 1994 to 9,500. Early in the year, direct flights are added between Oporto and Basel. Still, the carrier continues to suffer from significant fiscal difficulties and becomes one of several flag carriers seeking European Union permission for government bailouts.

In February, Lisbon officials approve a restructuring plan designed to return the airline to profitability in two years. Under its provisions, the company will reduce the workforce from 9,500 to 7,110, cancel 15 European routes, and cut out all North American service except New York. In return, the government will inject Esc 180 billion ($1 billion).

The EU Commission approves Portugal’s bailout of TAP in July, but with restrictions. These include abolishment of government tax exemptions in favor of the airline, a ban on TAP’s increasing its European market share, and a ban on TAP’s acquiring interest in other European airlines. Having absorbed exceptionally heavy losses, the charter subsidiary Air Atlantis, S. A. is now absorbed into its parent.

In August, the company co-brands its image with Visa credit cards, via the Banco Comercial de Macau. A code-sharing, blocked-seat agreement is signed with Delta Air Lines on November 1. Under its terms, the Portuguese carrier purchases blocks of seats on Delta’s A310-324 flights from New York and Newark to Lisbon, beginning on November 16. The first of four A340-312s on order is delivered on December 22; another will arrive a week later.

Passenger boardings decline 2.7% to 3,521,013 while freight grows 5.7% to 180.24 million FTKs. Revenues total $976.82 million, but expenses are a monstrous $1.16 billion. The operating loss is $184.14 million and the net downturn is $179.06 million.

There is no change in the workforce during 1995. The first A340-312 is employed on crew-training flights to London (LHR) during January in place of the A320-211 normally flown on the route from Lisbon. Arrangements are completed, via Fortis Aviation, to place a pair of Lockheed L-1011 TriStar 1s with Tajikistan International Airlines in time for that start-up to begin operations in February.

British Midland Airways, Ltd. becomes a code-sharing partner in February. TAP passengers arriving at London (LHR) from Lisbon, Faro, Oporto, or Madeira are able to make seamless connections aboard BMA flights to Belfast, Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds/Bradford, and Teesside.

In April, code-sharing flights commence with Air Afrique, S. A. over a route from Lisbon to Abidjan. An L-1011-500 TriStar is leased to British West Indies Airways, Ltd. (2) (BWIA) on a short-term basis in July. At the same time, two L-1011-500s are leased to the Belgian operator Caribjet, Ltd., which operates them under contract to Air India, Ltd.

Two more African airlines become dual-designator associates in November as code-sharing flights commence with TAAG Angola Airlines, S. A. from Lisbon to Luanda and with LAM (Linhas Aereas de Mo-cambique, S. A.) from Lisbon to Maputo.

Enplanements rise 5% to 3,696,376 and freight is up 6.9% to 192.76 million FTKs.

Airline employment is reduced 7.1% in 1996 to 8,827 and the owned fleet includes just the 4 A340-312s. Leased equipment includes 6 B-737-382s, 2 B-737-33As chartered from Norway Airlines, A. S., 2 B-737-3K9s leased from Bavaria Fluggesselschaft, GmbH., 1 B-737-282CA, 4 B-737-282As, 2 B-737-230As, 5 A310-304s, 5 Lockheed L-1011-500 TriStars, including the 1 leased to TAAG Angola Airlines and 1 out with British West Indies Airways, Ltd. (2) (BWIA) and 2 with Carib-jet, S. A., plus 6 A320-211s, including the 2 chartered from Bavaria Fluggesselschaft, GmbH.

In January, a block-space, code-sharing agreement begins with Por-tugalia Airlines, S. A. Manuel Ferreira Lima becomes chairman in February and in March the EU Commission approves a further Portuguese government injection of $26 million.

During the first quarter, the two TriStars with Caribjet, S. A. go out of service. They are, however, replaced by a third Portuguese L-1011-500 on March 8. After it has been repainted, it begins flying on behalf of Air Mauritius, Ltd. on March 15.

A $720-million order is placed with Airbus Industrie on November 1 for 18 A319s. Following the practice of Western Pacific Airlines (Westpac), the company at the end of the year commits two B-737-382s to a “logojet” program under which sponsors will pay to have advertisements on the aircraft.

Customer bookings accelerate 3.7% to 3,832,386 and 200.67 million FTKs are operated, an 8.8% increase. Although there is a $57.63-million operating profit, there is also a $69.51-million net loss.

The employee population grows by 7% in 1997 to 7,968. A previously announced commitment for 18 A319s is formalized in January, with the possibility that 5 orders may later be changed for A320s. In February, the two B-737-382s in the flying billboard program are unveiled. One wears a red and white livery promoting a specific vacation region and titles “Fly Algarve,” while the other boosts Lisbon’s “Expo 98” world’s fair with a base blue and white scheme.

The process of liberalization within the European civil aviation industry is completed on April 1. In early April, the European Commission approves the final Esc 40-billion tranche of state aid to the carrier.

It is now required that pilots perform to the EU legal limits for flight and duty time. Believing this to be unsafe, company flight crews declare a 48-hr. strike on April 24-25.

When the carrier withdraws its service from Lisbon to Manchester, England in May, the route is taken over by its code-sharing partner, the newly renamed PGA-Portugalia Airlines, S. A.

On September 18, a strategic partnership agreement is signed with Swissair, A. G. When implemented the next summer, the alliance will result in code-sharing on flights, collaboration on aircraft maintenance, ground handling, cargo, catering, and in joint marketing and linkage of frequent flyer programs.

On November 4, the company joins the Skymiles frequent flyer program of Delta Air Lines. The first new A319-111 is delivered on December 4.

A strategic alliance is entered into with Sabena Belgian World Airlines, S. A. in early December.

On December 23, it is announced that the partnership with Swissair, A. G. will be deepened. Under this more extensive arrangement, TAP will use Swissair’s reservations and handling system while its frequent flyer program will join the Qualiflyer program of Swissair. The agreement also allows SAirGroup to take a minority stake in the Portuguese airline when the Portuguese government initiates its planned privatization.

Passenger boardings accelerate 7.6% to 4,355,605 while cargo jumps 11.2% to 251.32 million FTKs. Operating revenues dip 1.6% to $1.15 billion, while costs slide 0.7% to $1.1 billion. Although the operating profit drops to $46.91 million, there is an $8.52-million net profit, the first net gain in a quarter of a century. It is later adjusted downward to $7.95 million.

Airline employment in 1998 stands at 7,448 while the fleet, 84.4% of which is Stage III certified, includes 32 airplanes at the beginning of the year: 15 B-737s, 5 A310s, 2 A319s, 6 A320s, and 4 A340s.

In January, officials of the carrier and Swissair, A. G. agree that the latter will acquire a 10% stake in the line as part of the Lisbon-based major’s privatization process. On January 28, a memorandum of understanding is signed with Austrian Airlines, A. G. for a broad commercial agreement that includes Lauda Air Luftfahlgesellschaft, A. G.; plans are made to begin code-sharing on routes from Portugal to Austria during the summer.

The company signs a strategic alliance and code-sharing pact with AOM French Airlines, S. A. in February, effective at the end of March.

The strategic pact with Sabena Belgian World Airlines, S. A. comes into effect on March 1. Dual-designator services are inaugurated from Lisbon to Brussels.

The first quarter compacts are deepened on March 29 when the carrier joins with Swissair, A. G., Austrian Airlines, A. G., Sabena Belgian World Airlines, S. A., THY Turkish Airlines, A. O., and AOM French Airlines, S. A. to form the “Qualiflyer” group. Although members will retain their own identities, they will engage in a long list of joint activities, including ground handling, lounges and ticket offices, and frequent flyer benefits. Collaborative activities that will be added as soon as details can be worked out include maintenance and overhaul, cargo, inflight catering, information technology, and duty-free concessions.

Under a recently signed code-sharing pact with Transbrasil Airlines, S. A. (Linhas Aereas), TAP is able to offer daily dual-designator service to Lisbon. The service, which begins on June 29, is flown four times a week by the European carrier, while Transbrasil offers flights thrice weekly. Each of the Brasilian line’s flights stop at a different northeastern city, Fortaleza, Recife, or Salvador.

When the company announces plans to wet-lease aircraft in order to gain additional required capacity to support traffic to the Lisbon “Expo 98” world’s fair, the carrier’s pilots vote to conduct 48-hr. strikes each week through August to protest.

With the beginning of the winter schedule on October 25, additional flights are added between Lisbon and London (LHR).

High overhead costs force the company, on October 26, to suspend its unprofitable twice-weekly A340-312 roundtrips from Lisbon to Macau.

Toward the end of the year, the government establishes an arbitration panel to end the long-running dispute between the company and pilots over working hours, holidays, rest periods, and wages.

Customer bookings during the 12 months accelerate 8.7% to 4.53 million even as cargo traffic slides 2.1% to 229.97 million FTKs. Revenues are $1.14 billion, while expenses are $1.1 billion and leave an operating profit of $43.45 million. The net gain is $9.01 million.

By the beginning of 1999, airline employment has been increased by 2.1% to 8,300. Weekly A310-304 return service is inaugurated on March 29 between Lisbon and Natal, in northeastern Brasil. Natal is the sixth Brazilian destination served by TAP, with the others including Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Recife, Salvador da Bahia, and Fortaleza.

The Wall Street Journal reports on April 2 that SAirGroup, parent of Swissair, A. G., will soon acquire a 20% stake in TAP, with an option to acquire another 10% interest over the next 4 years. The deal is valued at Esc 15 billion (approximately $100 million), but will need EC permission before it can be implemented.

The arbitration panel established at the end of 1998 makes a ruling in mid-April on working conditions that very much favors the position of the carrier’s pilots. A huge 95% pay increase is also recommended.

On April 21, Portugal’s Public Works Minister, Joao Cravinho indicates that the panel’s work should be revisited. Unless the arrangement is renegotiated, he fears, TAP risks bankruptcy. Responding for the pilots’ union, SPAC, Capt. Joaquim Filipe indicates that the flyers will not abandon the tribunal’s ruling and rejects the minister’s call to reopen the issue of working conditions. The pilots are, he states, prepared to discuss cost cutting, but only after the airline accepts the principles enshrined in the arbitrators’ decision.

Swissair, A. G. offers no comment on the management-labor tussle and waits on the sidelines. Both parties know that the stake sale is effectively on hold until the labor problems are resolved.

At the beginning of May, a new management board is elected. It is tasked with attempting to prepare the airline for privatization and settling the labor dispute with SPAC.

Flight International reveals on May 12 that SAirGroup is having second thoughts about its plans to take a 20% stake in TAP. Doubt has followed the decision of a tribunal court that has recommended that pilots of the Portuguese national airline be awarded a huge salary increase.

It is announced on August 2 that the labor dispute has been settled. Under terms of an agreement between the company and its flyers, the pilots will receive between 10% and 21% of the airline’s equity and a seat on the board of directors when TAP is privatized.

A new recovery plan is unveiled on August 6. Although it will divide the company into three operating units and seek various cost-savings, no date for its implementation is announced.

The reorganization and conclusion of the labor difficulties is, however, sufficient proof of stabilization for SAirGroup to finalize its equity investment. TAP-Air Portugal now becomes a member of the “Qual-iFlyer” group. The last of six A319-111s to be delivered on the year is accepted on November 24.

Passenger boardings jump 6.7% to 4,841,000 while freight traffic falls by 11.5% to 203.59 million FTKs.

Airline employment at the beginning of 2000 stands at 8,870, a 6.9% increase over the previous 12 months.

A comprehensive cooperative agreement is signed with LAM (Linhas Aereas de Mocambique, S. A.) on January 24. Under terms of the pact, the Portuguese flag carrier will purchase blocks of seats and place its code on LAM’s return services from Maputo to Lisbon. The last of a 16-ship order for A319-111s is delivered on January 25. The Portuguese government, in early February, confirms that SAirGroup has completed arrangements for the acquisition of a 34% stake in TAP for 31.2 billion escudos ($154 million). The government will retain 51% and sell 10% to employees. SAirGroup has an option to purchase another 5% if desired.

The block-seat dual-designator pact begins with LAM (Linhas Aereas de Mocambique, S. A.) on April 1. Three of the four weekly roundtrips from Maputo to Lisbon are operated with LAM’s B-767-2B1ER, with the third flown by TAP’s A310-304. The Tuesday and Wednesday LAM flights stop at Beira, while the other two frequencies are direct.

The last of six A320-214s delivered since the previous February is accepted on May 31.

During a parliamentary hearing in June, Public Works Minister Jorge Coelho reports that TAP has avoided the prospect of bankruptcy by having reduced its loss during the first 4 months of the year by 15% to E 42 million ($39 million). The upswing is due entirely to the company’s new relationship with SAirGroup, parent of Swissair, A. G., and the sale of E 20 million of its shares in Equant. Early next year, company employees will be invited to purchase a 10% stake in the airline.

TAP takes delivery of its first A321, a Dash-211, on August 31.

Under a code-sharing agreement signed with American Airlines on June 13, American, on October 29, places its designator on TAP flights from Lisbon to Boston, Newark, and New York (JFK). TAP is able to place its code on AA domestic flights beyond those three gateways.

When, on October 29, TAP discontinues its Lisbon to Boston service, it instead begins to code-share on the route with SATA Internacional, S. A. Flights from Lisbon to Abidjan cease the same day.

Displeased with the company’s salary offer, members of the Civil Aviation Cabin Crew Union stage a strike on November 25. The job action causes the airline to cancel 47 of its 125 departures. The strike continues the next day, forcing TAP to cancel 46 of 125 flights. For the weekend, only 11,914 passengers are transported, as against typical bookings of 25,000. After another 35 flights are scrubbed on November 27, the job action ends and negotiations on a final settlement resume.

During the following week, the airline offers its workers 1.4% of the 2.7% increase demanded, refusing to give in further in anticipation of a huge loss on the year. Talks collapse on the evening of November 30 and the strike action resumes on December 1.

Only one B-737-3K9 remains in service as the year ends. At New Year’s, VARIG Brazilian Airlines (Viacao Aerea Rio-Grandense, S. A.) CEO Fernando Pinto becomes president/CEO of TAP-Air Portugal.

Customer bookings during these 12 months accelerate 9.1% to 5.28 million, while freight traffic rises 9.9% to 223.66 million FTKs.

Due to finances and a management shakeup at Swissair, A. G. parent SAirGroup in late January, the Swiss will withdraw from the TAP privatization process.